What is igniting an anger in the hearts of Indian farmers, making their bears burn is news like this?
Since the end of November, a group of Indian farmers have driven tractors, flock to the border of Delhi National Capital District, participate in protests. They take food, fuel and medical products, and hovely in the streets, and have been blocked in the northern part of Delhi, the western and southern borders.
As of December 12, local time, there were more than 50,000 peasants in the protest, 60% of which were from Punjab.
On the 14th, the number of protested has nearly 100,000, and 5 highways leading to Delhi were blocked. If the protest activities continue to upgrade, they are likely and news to block the railway.
What is igniting an anger in the hearts of Indian farmers, making their bears burn like this?
Three bills, ignite farmers anger
This huge peasant protests originated from a agricultural reform plan of the Indian government.
In May of this year, India Finance Minister Hitatraman announced the economic assistance and reform plan named “Indian independent task”. Among g9oogle news the field of agriculture, the government has increased its investment in agricultural infrastructure, and demolished the internal barriers of agricultural products cross-state trade, and also plans to abolish the “Intermediary System” in the field of agricultural products.
[Note: The system requires a middleman, buyers in the sales of agricultural products to farmers must first set up by the official government organization “Farmers Market” or “middleman”, and then a big distributor for resale by such middlemen. 】
Modi government said intermediary groups undermines the efficiency of agriculture and the interests of farmers in India, and this calls for farmers to support the reform, the abolition of intermediaries system.
However, in fact, many Indian states have already expressly repealed intermediary system. According to India’s National Bureau of Statistics, 2012-2013, including rice, wheat and other staple crops, sale of majority share in India crops farmers market does not exceed 25%. At present, the main middleman system remains in the northern agricultural states, the “rice bowl of India,” said the Punjab (next state) and Haryana (Ha Bang) in the field of staple food crops.
In this case, the Modi Government to abolish the system is the “ulterior motives”, but in the following two points:
First, promote market-oriented agriculture, strengthen the influence of big capital in the agricultural sector, the agricultural sector by market forces regulate production;
Second, by virtue of the large depth bind Capital Group to strengthen central government control over agriculture, to create conditions for further agricultural reform.
The reform program led to discontent of farmers, who fear reform will further agricultural trade market. So, farmers market in the competition after defeat private capital, the minimum guaranteed price will be unable to carry out. Private large manufacturers will lower prices through a variety of ways, harm the interests of farmers.
[Note: The specific agricultural minimum guaranteed price, is a national institution through a special weighting scheme, considering the terms of fertilizers, electricity, labor and other inputs, security at the end of a particular agricultural product derived from the purchase price. 】
From the beginning of May, next to Ha Bang Bang, and there have been sporadic protests of farmers, but that did not stop the introduction of the reform bill.
September 19, the Indian Lok Sabha (lower house) by the three agricultural reform bill – “agricultural trade and commerce Act (enhancement and promotion)” “Farmers and agricultural price protection Service Act,” “necessity (Amendment) Act.” Its main contents include:
* Abolish intermediary system, allowing farmers to deal directly with large distributors;
* The abolition of quantitative restrictions highest agricultural enterprises reserves;
* Allows enterprises and farmers to conclude a contract, a “contract farming.”
Reform Act was announced it triggered fierce opposition Congress Party and other opposition parties, to the next, ha two states, led by farmer protests continued, and the country caused widespread response.
Market, next to the state farmers’ anxiety
Next to Ha Bang Bang and peasants are the main force of this protest, which is closely related to long-term agricultural crisis in India.
1960, India suffered persistent hunger strike, in order to solve the food problem, to maintain national food security, the government implemented the “green revolution”, to support agricultural development, provide subsidies for technical use of modern agricultural fertilizers, irrigation water pumping, take price support policy to ensure supply of major food crops. Since the economic reforms in the 1990s, India has gradually agricultural market.
Under the impetus of the series of reform measures, the rapid growth of India’s agricultural production, but also very difficult.
Under India’s federal structure and election systems, agricultural subsidies and agricultural credit waiver policy has become a common tool of political parties canvassing, making India’s deep financial trouble. 2017-2018 fiscal year, the total amount of agricultural subsidies at all levels of government in India up to 2.355 trillion rupees, waiver of agricultural loans up to 1.222 trillion rupees, while total actual revenue was only the central 14.3523 trillion rupees.
* Production structure is irrational, environmental carrying unsustainable
Ha Bang Bang and an example to the next. This is an arid zone here, but to ensure that under the influence of price and subsidy policies, a large number of farmers to grow rice, to bring great pressure in particular the minimum agricultural products. According to Indian media reports, India’s current groundwater consumption has exceeded the sum of China and the United States, where the agricultural sector accounted for more than 90%. 2000-2017 years, the groundwater level in rice-growing areas in northern India has decreased by 23%.
* Market liberalization and increase the burden on farmers
After India’s agricultural market, lost the protection of the government, farmers have become the underdog bargaining process, direct consequences of fluctuations in agricultural production, farmers bankruptcy, suicide and other social problems frequently.
Bihar after the 2006 reform of agricultural liberalization, grain traders as the capital side of the lower prices in the grain harvest acquisition, sell a lot of harvest time, seriously weaken medium and small farmer income expectations.
The new round of agricultural reform is to poke a sore point in the next state farmers. They have deep grievances against the government policy of liberalization of agricultural trade, lower volatility compared to the free market, they favor government intervention to protect income against the domination of big capital to farmers.
In fact, in addition to rice and wheat, next to the state include cotton, corn, including many crops had to trade liberalization. Whenever the collapse of agricultural prices, the acquisition of large buyers on lower prices, more and more farmers debt losses. In live news todays recent years, Indian onions, potatoes and other crops, soaring prices several times. Government indifference when prices collapse, suppress price inflation Shique shot, or even banned exports, serious damage to the interests of farmers.
Thus, while Modi government had no intention to abolish the agricultural market, but in view of the above all the “lessons”, farmers are convinced that this is a government conspiracy. Once abolish the middleman system, large capital increase out of business by the acquisition of agricultural market, a monopoly and then lower prices, farmers will be able to dominate groups.
Government google recent news miscarriage of justice, protest gathered strength
September 27, the President of India Branch Bonaventure approved three agricultural reform bill, next to the state farmers’ protests followed them into the climax. Farmers will protest on the highway and railway tractors open, leading to traffic gridlock in the state, even a close relationship between the ruling party and the siege of large enterprises (such as Reliance) facilities.
Modi government have sufficient confidence to settle this next state farmers protest and taken a number of measures.
* Try to differentiate farmers groups
The Modi government did not directly abolish the agricultural product market, which only allowed the big dealers to directly trade with individual farmers, and also planned to increase the price of agricultural products, attempted to calm the people.
* Coinciper in combination with all state political power
In the state-based state, such as Harriana, the Moti government relies on strong suppression and quickly calm down; in the Bang of the opposition power, such as the Parties controlled by the National Party, take the suspension tax transfer payment Wait for pressure.
In addition, the protest time happens between India’s annual autumn harvest and spring-harvest grain seeding, plus new crown pneumonia epidemics spread, Modi government, I thought farmers will be busy protesting. But the facts prove that the people of the print were mistaken.
First of all, the party’s political party attitude is swaying, and the CPC has lost the political foundation of the parapher.
To the high Akari Party (SAD) is the party part of the Central Party in the Allies of the Bank. In the voting stage of the People’s Garden, SAD supports the government’s agricultural reform bill, but when farmers protest, it also expressed opposition to the Reform Act, protested from the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government in the Printing Party afterwards on September 27. The exit of the SAD marked the crash of the Central Party in the political foundation of the Bank.
Second, the unique and powerful social organizationality of bypass is possible to make persistent protests.
Boabang and Babang and Pakistan are also a large-Bundu area. In the late medieval, a large number of Jac people immigrate to this. Among them, Jiadi, who lived in Batan, India, mainly believes that Siki-bilo-farm production, often forms a small tribe, with high internal homogeneity, equality and military, and discrete with the surname Traditional Hindu society is very different.
During the British colonial ruling, the large-scale irrigation project construction was carried out, which greatly promoted local agricultural production, and the social and economic model dominated by farm agricultural economy was formed. Even in the “green revolution” and the waste of agricultural liberalization, Pharaoan farmers still maintained the tradition of some small farmers.
Protest-protested farmers form a mutualguard group, helping each other, farming, farming, farming, and protests. Rural communities also provide food and fuel without compensation, and then transport the volunteer transport team to support the front line.
Finally, in the Bartang, the middleman is not a naked interest exploiter, but an important part of the traditional rural social asylum network. They not only provide relief and borrowing of the underlying farmers, but also to the government’s important organizational strength to the government.
In the face of powerful stress, the Modi government is still not moving, and it is said that agricultural reform is “freedom” to farmers and further releases economic vitality. In the first round of negotiations with the protests of the peasant representatives, the central government did not pay attention to the demands of the peasants, and only sent the agricultural secretary (the civil servant of agricultural affairs) to participate in the negotiation. The result is no longer final, further excoriating the contradiction between farmers and governments.
Under the weight, what is Mo Di?
At the end of November, the farmers in the northern India ended, and the peasants of the Bangang continued to struggle. Babang farmers also rejoin them. On the 25th, thousands of peasants in two states opened the tractor into Delhi. The Babang government under the controlled party control once again dispatched the water gun and tearnel, suppress the protest group, and enrolled public opinion widely condemned.
The road to strong suppression of farmers protests was blocked. The protest team continued to travel to the Capital area of ??Delhi, planned to cut off the replenishment line of Delhi and forced the central government to concession. They carry sufficient dry food and camping tools to prepare for long-term protests.
At the same time, the struggle between the two state farmers saw other state farmers who were suffering from agricultural policies, and farmers who had a dozen states rushed to Delhi to protest.
From the dissatisfaction of spoofing to national protests, the problems in front of Moti are more complicated.
* The lack of important people in the early stage of failure, so that the government responds to confusion and lacks coordination.
After the upgrade of protests, the Victoria Party of North Akure claims that farmers are anti-state power and undoubtedly indulge in contradictions. Minister Indian Minister of India, the Domestic Politics “Big General Management” Amit Sha, who is infected with new crops, and rehabilled and enrolled in the southern Trentana election activities, which also severely weakened the Coordination of the Yintan ability.
Until November 29th, Shahi was organized by the peasant to organize relevant policies, and expressed their willingness to launch relevant amendments.
* With the continued spread of protests, the Modi government has a rest of the room.
The problem has been dragged, and there are more and more demands of peasants. In the fifth negotiation of December 5, protesting farmers asked the Government to fully withdraw the three agricultural reform bills.
Many opposition to the previous silent gongs will focus on the opportunity to weaken the people’s forces, and they have aid to support farmers’ protests. On December 8th, the protests protesting farmers launched the “Full Industry Strike” event across the country and supported multiple opposition, trade union and industry associations.
Farmers’ protests have also attracted the attention of the international community. Overseas Indian associations represented by the Canadian Siki Group condemned the behavior of the Modi government to suppress the demonstabilists, and assisted the peasants through remittance and other means.
Indian farmers protests are more complex, and the Modi government is facing a huge crisis.
Under the new crown pneumonia, the Modi government launched the “Indian Autonomous Tasks” large-scale economic reform plan, determined to “chemically changed the machine” by the extension of the epidemic, and promoted major capital, large consortium as the main service object, with economic liberalization Reform measures for the main features. The reform plan launched a sufficient reform measures at once, and “chemically long pain is a short pain with strong suppression”, and the Indian economy is lived.
However, it has proved that Moti has overestimated the ability of Indian society. The reform in the agricultural fields enriminated general protests, and the political foundation of the Yabang Bang was destroyed.
More seriously, the long-term liberalization reform measures have not truly improve the living standards of the Indian people, but in turn to create huge inequality, leading to the government to lose their beliefs.
In the future, there will be a contradiction between reform, development and stability between the government and the people, will still be a major challenge in India.